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两部门公布超时加班劳动人事争议案例 明确加班工资法律适用标准

2021-08-26 11:37:50 大发体育

  大发(fa)体育客户端8月26日(ri)电 最(zui)(zui)高(gao)人(ren)民(min)法(fa)院(yuan)微(wei)信公众号26日(ri)消息,人(ren)力资源社(she)会保障部和最(zui)(zui)高(gao)人(ren)民(min)法(fa)院(yuan)联合发(fa)布超时(shi)加班劳动(dong)人(ren)事争议典(dian)型案例(li),进一步(bu)明确工时(shi)及加班工资法(fa)律适用标(biao)准。

最高人民法院微信公众号截图
最高人民法院(yuan)微信公众号截图(tu)

  最(zui)高法(fa)微信号透露(lu),近日,为(wei)(wei)贯彻党中央扎实(shi)开展党史学习教育“我为(wei)(wei)群众办实(shi)事”实(shi)践活动要(yao)求,进一步明(ming)确工(gong)时及(ji)加(jia)(jia)班(ban)工(gong)资法(fa)律(lv)适用(yong)标准,人力资源社会保(bao)障(zhang)部(bu)、最(zui)高人民法(fa)院联合发布了超时加(jia)(jia)班(ban)典型案例,对于(yu)切实(shi)提高劳(lao)动人事争议案件处(chu)理质效,及(ji)时纠(jiu)正(zheng)用(yong)人单位违法(fa)行为(wei)(wei),有效保(bao)障(zhang)劳(lao)动者(zhe)休(xiu)息权(quan)及(ji)劳(lao)动报酬权(quan)具有重要(yao)意义(yi)。

  近期(qi),一些行业、企业超时加(jia)(jia)班问题(ti)受到社(she)会(hui)(hui)广(guang)泛(fan)关注。劳(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)依法(fa)(fa)(fa)享有(you)相应的劳(lao)动(dong)报酬和(he)休息(xi)休假(jia)权益。遵守国(guo)家(jia)工时制度(du)是(shi)用(yong)人单位(wei)的法(fa)(fa)(fa)定义(yi)务。超时加(jia)(jia)班极(ji)易引(yin)发劳(lao)动(dong)争议(yi),影响劳(lao)动(dong)关系(xi)和(he)谐与社(she)会(hui)(hui)稳定。对此(ci),人力(li)资源社(she)会(hui)(hui)保障部(bu)、最(zui)高人民(min)法(fa)(fa)(fa)院高度(du)重视,通(tong)过联(lian)席(xi)会(hui)(hui)议(yi)、联(lian)合培训等方(fang)式,加(jia)(jia)大仲裁机(ji)构(gou)和(he)人民(min)法(fa)(fa)(fa)院办案(an)指导力(li)度(du),准(zhun)确(que)适用(yong)法(fa)(fa)(fa)律政策,统(tong)一裁判尺度(du)。本次两部(bu)门联(lian)合向社(she)会(hui)(hui)公开发布典型案(an)例(li),一方(fang)面提示用(yong)人单位(wei)违法(fa)(fa)(fa)行为(wei)风险,促进依法(fa)(fa)(fa)规范(fan)用(yong)工;另一方(fang)面明确(que)劳(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)维权预期(qi),引(yin)导劳(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)依法(fa)(fa)(fa)理性维权。

  最高法(fa)(fa)微信号透露(lu),下一步(bu),人社部和最高法(fa)(fa)将继(ji)续联合(he)开展制定指导意(yi)见、发布(bu)案例(li)、加(jia)强信息比对等工作,不(bu)断(duan)推(tui)进裁审程序(xu)衔接和法(fa)(fa)律适用统一,更好实(shi)现仲裁与司(si)法(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)高效(xiao)(xiao)、有(you)序(xu)衔接,实(shi)现劳动争议纠纷化解政治(zhi)效(xiao)(xiao)果、法(fa)(fa)律效(xiao)(xiao)果与社会效(xiao)(xiao)果的(de)(de)有(you)机统一。

  附:劳动(dong)人事争议典(dian)型案(an)例(第(di)二批)

  案例1. 劳动者拒绝违法超时加班安排,用人单位能否解除劳动合同

  基本案情

  张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)于(yu)2020年6月(yue)入职某(mou)快(kuai)递(di)公(gong)司,双方订立的劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)合(he)同约定(ding)试用期(qi)(qi)为(wei)3个(ge)月(yue),试用期(qi)(qi)月(yue)工(gong)(gong)资(zi)为(wei)8000元,工(gong)(gong)作时(shi)(shi)间(jian)执行某(mou)快(kuai)递(di)公(gong)司规章制度相关规定(ding)。某(mou)快(kuai)递(di)公(gong)司规章制度规定(ding),工(gong)(gong)作时(shi)(shi)间(jian)为(wei)早9时(shi)(shi)至晚9时(shi)(shi),每周工(gong)(gong)作6天。2个(ge)月(yue)后,张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)以工(gong)(gong)作时(shi)(shi)间(jian)严重超过法律规定(ding)上(shang)限为(wei)由拒绝超时(shi)(shi)加班安排,某(mou)快(kuai)递(di)公(gong)司即以张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)在试用期(qi)(qi)间(jian)被证(zheng)明不符(fu)合(he)录(lu)用条件为(wei)由与其解(jie)除劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)合(he)同。张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)向劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)人事争议(yi)仲裁(cai)委(wei)员会(简称仲裁(cai)委(wei)员会)申(shen)请仲裁(cai)。

  申请人请求

  请求裁决某快递(di)公司(si)支(zhi)付(fu)违法解除劳动合同赔偿金(jin)8000元。

  处理结果

  仲裁(cai)委(wei)员会裁(cai)决某(mou)快递公(gong)司支付(fu)张(zhang)某(mou)违法解除劳(lao)动(dong)合同赔(pei)偿(chang)金8000元(裁(cai)决为终局裁(cai)决)。仲裁(cai)委(wei)员会将案(an)件情况通报劳(lao)动(dong)保障(zhang)监察机构(gou),劳(lao)动(dong)保障(zhang)监察机构(gou)对某(mou)快递公(gong)司规章制度违反法律、法规规定(ding)的情形责令其改正,给予警告(gao)。

  案例分析

  本案的争议焦点是张某(mou)拒绝违法(fa)超(chao)时(shi)加班安(an)排,某(mou)快(kuai)递公(gong)司能(neng)否(fou)与其解(jie)除劳动合同。

  《中(zhong)(zhong)华(hua)人(ren)(ren)(ren)民共(gong)和(he)国劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)法(fa)(fa)》第(di)(di)四十一条规(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding):“用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)位(wei)由于生产(chan)经营需要,经与工会和(he)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者协商(shang)后(hou)可以延(yan)(yan)(yan)长(zhang)(zhang)工作时(shi)间(jian),一般每(mei)(mei)日(ri)不(bu)得(de)超(chao)过一小时(shi);因特殊原因需要延(yan)(yan)(yan)长(zhang)(zhang)工作时(shi)间(jian)的(de)(de),在保(bao)障劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者身体(ti)健康的(de)(de)条件(jian)下延(yan)(yan)(yan)长(zhang)(zhang)工作时(shi)间(jian)每(mei)(mei)日(ri)不(bu)得(de)超(chao)过三(san)小时(shi),但是(shi)每(mei)(mei)月不(bu)得(de)超(chao)过三(san)十六小时(shi)。”第(di)(di)四十三(san)条规(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding):“用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)位(wei)不(bu)得(de)违(wei)反(fan)本法(fa)(fa)规(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)延(yan)(yan)(yan)长(zhang)(zhang)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者的(de)(de)工作时(shi)间(jian)。”《中(zhong)(zhong)华(hua)人(ren)(ren)(ren)民共(gong)和(he)国劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)合(he)同(tong)法(fa)(fa)》第(di)(di)二(er)十六条规(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding):“下列劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)合(he)同(tong)无(wu)效或者部分无(wu)效:……(三(san))违(wei)反(fan)法(fa)(fa)律(lv)、行政(zheng)法(fa)(fa)规(gui)(gui)强制性(xing)规(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)。”为确(que)(que)保(bao)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者休息(xi)权的(de)(de)实现,我国法(fa)(fa)律(lv)对(dui)延(yan)(yan)(yan)长(zhang)(zhang)工作时(shi)间(jian)的(de)(de)上(shang)限(xian)予以明确(que)(que)规(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)。用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)位(wei)制定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)违(wei)反(fan)法(fa)(fa)律(lv)规(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)加班制度(du),在劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)合(he)同(tong)中(zhong)(zhong)与劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者约(yue)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)违(wei)反(fan)法(fa)(fa)律(lv)规(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)加班条款,均应(ying)认(ren)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)为无(wu)效。

  本案中,某(mou)(mou)快递公(gong)司规章(zhang)制度中“工作时(shi)(shi)间(jian)为(wei)早9时(shi)(shi)至(zhi)晚9时(shi)(shi),每周工作6天”的内容,严重违(wei)(wei)反法(fa)(fa)(fa)律关于延长工作时(shi)(shi)间(jian)上(shang)限的规定,应认定为(wei)无效。张(zhang)某(mou)(mou)拒(ju)绝违(wei)(wei)法(fa)(fa)(fa)超时(shi)(shi)加班安排(pai),系维护自己合法(fa)(fa)(fa)权益(yi),不(bu)能据此认定其在试用(yong)期间(jian)被证明不(bu)符合录用(yong)条件。故仲裁(cai)委员会依(yi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)裁(cai)决某(mou)(mou)快递公(gong)司支付张(zhang)某(mou)(mou)违(wei)(wei)法(fa)(fa)(fa)解除劳(lao)动合同赔偿(chang)金(jin)。

  典型意义

  《中华人民共(gong)和国劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)法(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)》第四条规(gui)定:“用(yong)人单位应当(dang)依法(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)建立和完善规(gui)章制度(du),保(bao)障(zhang)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)享有劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)权利(li)和履行(xing)(xing)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)义(yi)务。”法(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)律在(zai)支(zhi)持(chi)用(yong)人单位依法(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)行(xing)(xing)使(shi)管(guan)理职权的(de)(de)(de)同时,也明确其必(bi)须履行(xing)(xing)保(bao)障(zhang)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)权利(li)的(de)(de)(de)义(yi)务。用(yong)人单位的(de)(de)(de)规(gui)章制度(du)以及相(xiang)应工作安排必(bi)须符(fu)合法(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)律、行(xing)(xing)政法(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)规(gui)的(de)(de)(de)规(gui)定,否则既(ji)要承担违法(fa)(fa)(fa)(fa)后果,也不利(li)于构建和谐稳定的(de)(de)(de)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)关系、促进自身健康发展。

  案例2.劳动者与用人单位订立放弃加班费协议,能否主张加班费

  基本案情

  张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)于2020年(nian)6月入职某(mou)科(ke)技公(gong)司,月工资20000元(yuan)。某(mou)科(ke)技公(gong)司在与张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)订(ding)(ding)立(li)劳(lao)动(dong)合(he)(he)同(tong)时,要(yao)求(qiu)其订(ding)(ding)立(li)一份协议(yi)(yi)作为合(he)(he)同(tong)附件(jian),协议(yi)(yi)内容包括“我自愿申(shen)请(qing)加(jia)入公(gong)司奋斗者计划,放弃(qi)加(jia)班费(fei)。”半年(nian)后,张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)因个(ge)人原(yuan)因提出解(jie)除劳(lao)动(dong)合(he)(he)同(tong),并要(yao)求(qiu)支付加(jia)班费(fei)。某(mou)科(ke)技公(gong)司认(ren)可张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)加(jia)班事实,但以其自愿订(ding)(ding)立(li)放弃(qi)加(jia)班费(fei)协议(yi)(yi)为由(you)拒(ju)绝支付。张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)向(xiang)劳(lao)动(dong)人事争议(yi)(yi)仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)委(wei)员(yuan)会(hui)(简(jian)称仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)委(wei)员(yuan)会(hui))申(shen)请(qing)仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)。

  申请人请求

  请求(qiu)裁决某科技公司(si)支付2020年(nian)6月至12月加班费24000元。

  处理结果

  仲裁委员(yuan)会(hui)裁决某(mou)科技公(gong)司支付(fu)张某(mou)2020年6月(yue)至(zhi)12月(yue)加班(ban)费24000元。

  案例分析

  本案的争议(yi)焦点是(shi)张某订立放弃加班费协议(yi)后,还能否主(zhu)张加班费。

  《中(zhong)华人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)民(min)共和(he)国(guo)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)合同法》第(di)二(er)十六条规定(ding):“下列(lie)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)合同无效或者(zhe)部分(fen)无效:……(二(er))用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)单位免除自己的(de)法定(ding)责(ze)任、排除劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)权利(li)的(de)”。《最高人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)民(min)法院关(guan)(guan)于审理(li)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)争议(yi)(yi)案件适用(yong)法律问题的(de)解释(一)》(法释〔2020〕26号(hao))第(di)三(san)十五条规定(ding):“劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)与(yu)用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)单位就解除或者(zhe)终止劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)合同办理(li)相关(guan)(guan)手续、支(zhi)(zhi)付工资报酬(chou)、加(jia)(jia)班(ban)费、经济(ji)补偿或者(zhe)赔偿金(jin)等达成的(de)协议(yi)(yi),不违(wei)反法律、行政法规的(de)强制性规定(ding),且不存(cun)(cun)在(zai)欺(qi)诈、胁迫或者(zhe)乘人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)之危情形(xing)(xing)的(de),应当认(ren)定(ding)有效。前款协议(yi)(yi)存(cun)(cun)在(zai)重大误解或者(zhe)显(xian)(xian)失公(gong)平(ping)情形(xing)(xing),当事人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)请(qing)求撤销的(de),人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)民(min)法院应予(yu)支(zhi)(zhi)持。”加(jia)(jia)班(ban)费是劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)延(yan)长工作(zuo)时间的(de)工资报酬(chou),《中(zhong)华人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)民(min)共和(he)国(guo)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)法》第(di)四十四条、《中(zhong)华人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)民(min)共和(he)国(guo)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)合同法》第(di)三(san)十一条明(ming)确规定(ding)了(le)用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)单位支(zhi)(zhi)付劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)加(jia)(jia)班(ban)费的(de)责(ze)任。约定(ding)放弃加(jia)(jia)班(ban)费的(de)协议(yi)(yi)免除了(le)用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)(ren)单位的(de)法定(ding)责(ze)任、排除了(le)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)权利(li),显(xian)(xian)失公(gong)平(ping),应认(ren)定(ding)无效。

  本案中,某(mou)科技公司利用在订立劳(lao)动合同(tong)时的主导地位(wei),要求张某(mou)在其单方制定的格式条款上签(qian)字放(fang)弃加(jia)班费,既违(wei)反法律规定,也违(wei)背公平原则,侵害(hai)了张某(mou)工(gong)资报酬(chou)权益。故仲裁委(wei)员(yuan)会依(yi)法裁决某(mou)科技公司支付张某(mou)加(jia)班费。

  典型意义

  崇(chong)尚奋斗无(wu)可厚非(fei),但不能成为(wei)用人单位规(gui)避法(fa)定(ding)责任的(de)(de)挡箭(jian)牌。谋求企(qi)业(ye)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)、塑(su)造大发(fa)体育都(dou)必须守住不违(wei)反法(fa)律规(gui)定(ding)、不侵害劳动者合(he)法(fa)权益的(de)(de)底线(xian),应在坚持按劳分(fen)配原(yuan)则的(de)(de)基础上,通过科学合(he)理的(de)(de)措施(shi)激发(fa)劳动者的(de)(de)主观能动性和创造性,统筹促进(jin)企(qi)业(ye)发(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)与维护劳动者权益。

  案例3.用人单位未按规章制度履行加班审批手续,能否认定劳动者加班事实

  基本案情

  吴(wu)某(mou)于2019年(nian)12月(yue)入(ru)职(zhi)某(mou)医(yi)药(yao)(yao)(yao)公(gong)司,月(yue)工(gong)资(zi)为18000元。某(mou)医(yi)药(yao)(yao)(yao)公(gong)司加(jia)班(ban)管(guan)理制(zhi)度规定:“加(jia)班(ban)需提交加(jia)班(ban)申请(qing)单,按(an)程序(xu)审(shen)批(pi)。未(wei)经(jing)审(shen)批(pi)的,不认(ren)定为加(jia)班(ban),不支付(fu)加(jia)班(ban)费。”吴(wu)某(mou)入(ru)职(zhi)后(hou),按(an)照某(mou)医(yi)药(yao)(yao)(yao)公(gong)司安排实(shi)际执行每天早(zao)9时(shi)至晚9时(shi),每周工(gong)作(zuo)6天的工(gong)作(zuo)制(zhi)度。其按(an)照某(mou)医(yi)药(yao)(yao)(yao)公(gong)司加(jia)班(ban)管(guan)理制(zhi)度提交了加(jia)班(ban)申请(qing)单,但某(mou)医(yi)药(yao)(yao)(yao)公(gong)司未(wei)实(shi)际履行审(shen)批(pi)手续(xu)。2020年(nian)11月(yue),吴(wu)某(mou)与某(mou)医(yi)药(yao)(yao)(yao)公(gong)司协商解(jie)除劳动(dong)合同(tong)(tong),要求某(mou)医(yi)药(yao)(yao)(yao)公(gong)司支付(fu)加(jia)班(ban)费,并出(chu)具(ju)了考勤记录(lu)、与部(bu)门领导及(ji)同(tong)(tong)事的微信聊天记录(lu)、工(gong)作(zuo)会(hui)议纪要等(deng)。某(mou)医(yi)药(yao)(yao)(yao)公(gong)司虽认(ren)可上(shang)述证据的真实(shi)性但以(yi)无公(gong)司审(shen)批(pi)手续(xu)为由拒绝支付(fu)。吴(wu)某(mou)向(xiang)劳动(dong)人事争(zheng)议仲裁(cai)(cai)委(wei)员会(hui)(简称仲裁(cai)(cai)委(wei)员会(hui))申请(qing)仲裁(cai)(cai)。

  申请人请求

  请求裁(cai)决某医药(yao)公司支付2019年12月(yue)至2020年11月(yue)加(jia)班费50000元。

  处理结果

  仲裁(cai)(cai)(cai)委(wei)员会裁(cai)(cai)(cai)决某(mou)医药公(gong)司(si)支付吴某(mou)2019年12月至2020年11月加班(ban)费50000元(yuan)。某(mou)医药公(gong)司(si)不服仲裁(cai)(cai)(cai)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)决起诉,一审法院判决与仲裁(cai)(cai)(cai)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)决一致,某(mou)医药公(gong)司(si)未(wei)上诉,一审判决已(yi)生效。

  案例分析

  本案的争(zheng)议焦点是某医药(yao)公(gong)司能否以无公(gong)司审批手续为(wei)由拒绝支付吴某加班费。

  《中华人(ren)(ren)民共和国劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)法》第四十(shi)四条规(gui)定:“有下(xia)(xia)列情(qing)形之(zhi)(zhi)一(yi)的,用人(ren)(ren)单(dan)位应当按照下(xia)(xia)列标(biao)(biao)准支付(fu)(fu)高于(yu)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)正常工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作时(shi)间(jian)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)报(bao)酬:(一(yi))安(an)(an)排(pai)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)延长工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作时(shi)间(jian)的,支付(fu)(fu)不低(di)于(yu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)的百(bai)(bai)(bai)分(fen)之(zhi)(zhi)一(yi)百(bai)(bai)(bai)五十(shi)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)报(bao)酬;(二(er))休(xiu)息日安(an)(an)排(pai)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作又不能安(an)(an)排(pai)补休(xiu)的,支付(fu)(fu)不低(di)于(yu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)的百(bai)(bai)(bai)分(fen)之(zhi)(zhi)二(er)百(bai)(bai)(bai)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)报(bao)酬。”《工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)支付(fu)(fu)暂行规(gui)定》(劳(lao)(lao)(lao)部发〔1994〕489号)第十(shi)三条规(gui)定:“用人(ren)(ren)单(dan)位在劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)完成劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)定额或规(gui)定的工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作任务后,根据实际需要(yao)安(an)(an)排(pai)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)在法定标(biao)(biao)准工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作时(shi)间(jian)以(yi)外(wai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作的,应按以(yi)下(xia)(xia)标(biao)(biao)准支付(fu)(fu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi):……”。从上述条款可知(zhi),符(fu)合“用人(ren)(ren)单(dan)位安(an)(an)排(pai)”“法定标(biao)(biao)准工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作时(shi)间(jian)以(yi)外(wai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作”情(qing)形的,用人(ren)(ren)单(dan)位应当依法支付(fu)(fu)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)加班费(fei)。

  本(ben)案中,吴某(mou)提交的(de)考勤(qin)记(ji)录、与部门领导及同事(shi)的(de)微(wei)信聊(liao)天记(ji)录、工作会议纪要等证据(ju)(ju)形成了相对完整的(de)证据(ju)(ju)链,某(mou)医药(yao)公(gong)司(si)亦认可(ke)上(shang)述证据(ju)(ju)的(de)真实性。某(mou)医药(yao)公(gong)司(si)未实际履行加(jia)班(ban)审批手(shou)续,并(bing)不影响(xiang)对“用(yong)人(ren)单位安排”加(jia)班(ban)这一(yi)事(shi)实的(de)认定。故仲裁委员会依法裁决某(mou)医药(yao)公(gong)司(si)支付吴某(mou)加(jia)班(ban)费。

  典型意义

  劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)规(gui)(gui)章制度对用人(ren)(ren)单(dan)位和(he)劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)者都(dou)具有约束力。一(yi)方(fang)面,用人(ren)(ren)单(dan)位应严格按照规(gui)(gui)章制度的规(gui)(gui)定(ding)实(shi)施管理行为(wei)(wei),不(bu)得滥用优势地位,侵(qin)害(hai)劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)者合(he)(he)法(fa)权(quan)(quan)益(yi);另一(yi)方(fang)面,劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)者在合(he)(he)法(fa)权(quan)(quan)益(yi)受到(dao)侵(qin)害(hai)时,要(yao)注意(yi)保留相关证据(ju),为(wei)(wei)维(wei)权(quan)(quan)提供依(yi)据(ju)。仲裁委员会、人(ren)(ren)民法(fa)院应准(zhun)(zhun)确把握加班事实(shi)认(ren)定(ding)标准(zhun)(zhun),纠正用人(ren)(ren)单(dan)位规(gui)(gui)避法(fa)定(ding)责任、侵(qin)害(hai)劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)者合(he)(he)法(fa)权(quan)(quan)益(yi)的行为(wei)(wei)。

  案例4.用人单位与劳动者约定实行包薪制,是否需要依法支付加班费

  基本案情

  周(zhou)某于2020年7月(yue)入职某汽(qi)车(che)服务公司(si),双方订(ding)立(li)的(de)劳(lao)动合(he)同约(yue)(yue)定(ding)月(yue)工资(zi)(zi)为4000元(含加班(ban)费(fei))。2021年2月(yue),周(zhou)某因个(ge)人原因提出(chu)解除劳(lao)动合(he)同,并认为即使(shi)按(an)照当地最低工资(zi)(zi)标准认定(ding)其法定(ding)标准工作(zuo)时间工资(zi)(zi),某汽(qi)车(che)服务公司(si)亦未足额支付加班(ban)费(fei),要求(qiu)支付差(cha)额。某汽(qi)车(che)服务公司(si)认可周(zhou)某加班(ban)事实,但以劳(lao)动合(he)同中约(yue)(yue)定(ding)的(de)月(yue)工资(zi)(zi)中已含加班(ban)费(fei)为由拒绝支付。周(zhou)某向劳(lao)动人事争议仲(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)委员会(hui)(简称(cheng)仲(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)委员会(hui))申请(qing)仲(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)。

  申请人请求

  请(qing)求裁决某(mou)汽车服务公司支付(fu)加班(ban)费差额17000元。

  处理结果

  仲裁(cai)(cai)委员(yuan)会裁(cai)(cai)决某汽(qi)车服务公司(si)(si)支付周(zhou)某加班费(fei)差额17000元(裁(cai)(cai)决为终(zhong)局裁(cai)(cai)决),并就有关(guan)问题向某汽(qi)车服务公司(si)(si)发出(chu)仲裁(cai)(cai)建议(yi)书。

  案例分析

  本案的争议(yi)焦(jiao)点是某汽车服(fu)务公司(si)与周(zhou)某约定实行包薪制,是否还(hai)需要依法(fa)支付(fu)周(zhou)某加班费差额。

  《中华(hua)人(ren)民共和国劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)法(fa)》第四十七条规(gui)定(ding)(ding):“用(yong)人(ren)单(dan)位(wei)根(gen)据本单(dan)位(wei)的生(sheng)产经(jing)(jing)营特(te)点和经(jing)(jing)济效益(yi),依(yi)法(fa)自主确(que)定(ding)(ding)本单(dan)位(wei)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)分配方式和工(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)水平(ping)。”第四十八条规(gui)定(ding)(ding):“国家(jia)实行最(zui)低工(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)保障制度。”《最(zui)低工(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)规(gui)定(ding)(ding)》(劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)和社会保障部(bu)令第21号)第三条规(gui)定(ding)(ding):“本规(gui)定(ding)(ding)所称(cheng)最(zui)低工(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)标准,是指(zhi)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)在法(fa)定(ding)(ding)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作时间或依(yi)法(fa)签(qian)订的劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)合同约定(ding)(ding)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)作时间内提供了正常(chang)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)的前(qian)提下,用(yong)人(ren)单(dan)位(wei)依(yi)法(fa)应支付的最(zui)低劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)报(bao)酬。”从上述条款可知,用(yong)人(ren)单(dan)位(wei)可以依(yi)法(fa)自主确(que)定(ding)(ding)本单(dan)位(wei)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)分配方式和工(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)水平(ping),并与劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)进行相应约定(ding)(ding),但不得(de)违反法(fa)律关于最(zui)低工(gong)(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)保障、加班费支付标准的规(gui)定(ding)(ding)。

  本案中,根据周某实际(ji)工(gong)(gong)作时(shi)间折算(suan),即使按照当地最低工(gong)(gong)资标准认定周某法(fa)定标准工(gong)(gong)作时(shi)间工(gong)(gong)资,并以(yi)此(ci)为基数核算(suan)加(jia)班(ban)费,也(ye)超出了4000元的约(yue)定工(gong)(gong)资,表明某汽(qi)车服(fu)务(wu)公司未依法(fa)足额支付周某加(jia)班(ban)费。故仲裁委员会依法(fa)裁决(jue)某汽(qi)车服(fu)务(wu)公司支付周某加(jia)班(ban)费差额。

  典型意义

  包薪(xin)(xin)制(zhi)是指在劳动合同(tong)中(zhong)打包约(yue)定(ding)(ding)法(fa)(fa)定(ding)(ding)标(biao)准工(gong)作时间工(gong)资和加(jia)班(ban)费的(de)(de)(de)一种工(gong)资分(fen)配方(fang)式,在部(bu)(bu)分(fen)加(jia)班(ban)安排较(jiao)多(duo)且(qie)时间相对固定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)行(xing)(xing)业中(zhong)比较(jiao)普遍。虽然用人(ren)单(dan)位(wei)(wei)有(you)依法(fa)(fa)制(zhi)定(ding)(ding)内部(bu)(bu)薪(xin)(xin)酬(chou)分(fen)配制(zhi)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)自主权,但内部(bu)(bu)薪(xin)(xin)酬(chou)分(fen)配制(zhi)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)定(ding)(ding)和执行(xing)(xing)须符合相关(guan)法(fa)(fa)律的(de)(de)(de)规定(ding)(ding)。实(shi)(shi)践(jian)中(zhong),部(bu)(bu)分(fen)用人(ren)单(dan)位(wei)(wei)存在以实(shi)(shi)行(xing)(xing)包薪(xin)(xin)制(zhi)规避或者减少承担支付加(jia)班(ban)费法(fa)(fa)定(ding)(ding)责任的(de)(de)(de)情(qing)况。实(shi)(shi)行(xing)(xing)包薪(xin)(xin)制(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)用人(ren)单(dan)位(wei)(wei)应严(yan)格按照不(bu)低于最低工(gong)资标(biao)准支付劳动者法(fa)(fa)定(ding)(ding)标(biao)准工(gong)作时间的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)资,同(tong)时按照国(guo)家关(guan)于加(jia)班(ban)费的(de)(de)(de)有(you)关(guan)法(fa)(fa)律规定(ding)(ding)足(zu)额支付加(jia)班(ban)费。

  案例5.用人单位未与劳动者协商一致增加工作任务,劳动者是否有权拒绝

  基本案情

  张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)于2018年9月(yue)入职(zhi)某(mou)报(bao)刊(kan)公(gong)(gong)司从事投递员(yuan)工作(zuo),每天工作(zuo)6小时(shi)(shi),每周工作(zuo)6天,月(yue)工资3500元。2020年6月(yue),因(yin)同区域(yu)另外一(yi)名投递员(yuan)离职(zhi),某(mou)报(bao)刊(kan)公(gong)(gong)司在(zai)未与(yu)张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)协商的情(qing)况下,安(an)排(pai)其在(zai)第三季度(du)承担该投递员(yuan)的工作(zuo)任(ren)务。张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)认(ren)为,要完成加(jia)倍(bei)的工作(zuo)量,其每天工作(zuo)时(shi)(shi)间至少需(xu)延长4小时(shi)(shi)以上,故(gu)拒绝上述安(an)排(pai)。某(mou)报(bao)刊(kan)公(gong)(gong)司依据员(yuan)工奖(jiang)惩(cheng)制度(du),以张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)不(bu)服从工作(zuo)安(an)排(pai)为由与(yu)其解(jie)除劳动合同。张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)向劳动人事争议仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)委(wei)员(yuan)会(简(jian)称仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)委(wei)员(yuan)会)申请仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)。

  申请人请求

  请求裁决某报刊公(gong)司支付违法解除劳(lao)动合同赔偿(chang)金(jin)14000元。

  处理结果

  仲(zhong)裁委员会裁决(jue)某报(bao)刊公司(si)支付张某违法解除劳动合同(tong)赔偿金14000元(裁决(jue)为终局裁决(jue))。

  案例分析

  本案的争(zheng)议焦点是(shi)某(mou)报刊(kan)公司未与张某(mou)协(xie)商一(yi)致增加其工作任务(wu),张某(mou)是(shi)否有权拒(ju)绝(jue)。

  《中华人(ren)(ren)(ren)民共和国劳(lao)动合同(tong)(tong)法》第(di)三十一条(tiao)规定(ding):“用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)位应(ying)当严(yan)格执行劳(lao)动定(ding)额(e)标准(zhun),不得(de)强迫或者变相强迫劳(lao)动者加班。”第(di)三十五条(tiao)规定(ding):“用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)位与劳(lao)动者协商一致,可以变更劳(lao)动合同(tong)(tong)约定(ding)的(de)内容(rong)。”劳(lao)动合同(tong)(tong)是(shi)明确用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)位和劳(lao)动者权(quan)利(li)义务的(de)书面(mian)协议,未经(jing)变更,双方(fang)均应(ying)严(yan)格按(an)照约定(ding)履行,特(te)别是(shi)涉及工(gong)作时间等(deng)劳(lao)动定(ding)额(e)标准(zhun)的(de)内容(rong)。

  本(ben)案中,某(mou)(mou)报(bao)刊公司超出合(he)(he)理限度大幅增加张(zhang)某(mou)(mou)的(de)工作任务(wu),应视(shi)为变(bian)更劳动(dong)合(he)(he)同约(yue)定(ding)的(de)内容,违反了关(guan)于“协商一致”变(bian)更劳动(dong)合(he)(he)同的(de)法(fa)律规定(ding),已构成变(bian)相强迫劳动(dong)者加班。因此,张(zhang)某(mou)(mou)有权依(yi)法(fa)拒绝上(shang)述安排。某(mou)(mou)报(bao)刊公司以张(zhang)某(mou)(mou)不(bu)服从工作安排为由与其(qi)解除劳动(dong)合(he)(he)同不(bu)符合(he)(he)法(fa)律规定(ding)。故仲裁委员(yuan)会依(yi)法(fa)裁决某(mou)(mou)报(bao)刊公司支(zhi)付张(zhang)某(mou)(mou)违法(fa)解除劳动(dong)合(he)(he)同赔偿(chang)金(jin)。

  典型意义

  允(yun)许用(yong)(yong)人单(dan)位与劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)协(xie)商(shang)一(yi)(yi)致变(bian)(bian)更(geng)(geng)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)合(he)同(tong),有利于保障用(yong)(yong)人单(dan)位根(gen)据生产(chan)经营需要合(he)理(li)调(diao)整用(yong)(yong)工安(an)排的权利。但要注(zhu)意的是,变(bian)(bian)更(geng)(geng)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)合(he)同(tong)要遵循合(he)法、公平(ping)、平(ping)等自(zi)愿、协(xie)商(shang)一(yi)(yi)致、诚实(shi)信用(yong)(yong)的原则。工作(zuo)量、工作(zuo)时(shi)间的变(bian)(bian)更(geng)(geng)直接影响劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)休息权的实(shi)现,用(yong)(yong)人单(dan)位对此(ci)进(jin)行大幅(fu)调(diao)整,应(ying)与劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)充分协(xie)商(shang),而不(bu)应(ying)采(cai)取(qu)强迫或者(zhe)变(bian)(bian)相强迫的方式,更(geng)(geng)不(bu)得违反相关法律规定(ding)。

  案例6.处理加班费争议,如何分配举证责任

  基本案情

  林某(mou)于2020年1月入(ru)职某(mou)教(jiao)育(yu)咨询(xun)公(gong)司(si)(si),月工(gong)资(zi)为(wei)6000元(yuan)。2020年7月,林某(mou)因(yin)个(ge)人(ren)原因(yin)提(ti)(ti)出解除劳(lao)动合同,并向劳(lao)动人(ren)事(shi)争议仲裁委(wei)员会(hui)(hui)(简(jian)称仲裁委(wei)员会(hui)(hui))申请仲裁。林某(mou)主张其工(gong)作期间每周(zhou)(zhou)工(gong)作6天(tian)(tian),并提(ti)(ti)交(jiao)了某(mou)打(da)(da)卡(ka)(ka)APP打(da)(da)卡(ka)(ka)记(ji)录(lu)(lu)(lu)(显(xian)(xian)示(shi)林某(mou)及(ji)某(mou)教(jiao)育(yu)咨询(xun)公(gong)司(si)(si)均实名认(ren)证,林某(mou)每周(zhou)(zhou)一(yi)至(zhi)周(zhou)(zhou)六打(da)(da)卡(ka)(ka);每天(tian)(tian)打(da)(da)卡(ka)(ka)两次,第(di)一(yi)次打(da)(da)卡(ka)(ka)时间为(wei)早9时左(zuo)右,第(di)二次打(da)(da)卡(ka)(ka)时间为(wei)下午6时左(zuo)右;打(da)(da)卡(ka)(ka)地点均为(wei)某(mou)教(jiao)育(yu)咨询(xun)公(gong)司(si)(si)所(suo)在(zai)位置,存在(zai)个(ge)别日期未(wei)打(da)(da)卡(ka)(ka)情形)、工(gong)资(zi)支付记(ji)录(lu)(lu)(lu)打(da)(da)印(yin)件(显(xian)(xian)示(shi)曾(ceng)因(yin)事(shi)假(jia)扣(kou)发工(gong)资(zi),扣(kou)发日期及(ji)天(tian)(tian)数与(yu)打(da)(da)卡(ka)(ka)记(ji)录(lu)(lu)(lu)一(yi)致,未(wei)显(xian)(xian)示(shi)加班费支付情况)。某(mou)教(jiao)育(yu)咨询(xun)公(gong)司(si)(si)不认(ren)可上述证据(ju)的真实性(xing),主张林某(mou)每周(zhou)(zhou)工(gong)作5天(tian)(tian),但未(wei)提(ti)(ti)交(jiao)考勤记(ji)录(lu)(lu)(lu)、工(gong)资(zi)支付记(ji)录(lu)(lu)(lu)。

  申请人请求

  请求裁决某(mou)教(jiao)育(yu)咨(zi)询公司(si)支付(fu)加班(ban)费10000元。

  处理结果

  仲裁(cai)委(wei)员会(hui)裁(cai)决(jue)某(mou)(mou)教(jiao)育咨(zi)询(xun)公司支付林某(mou)(mou)加班费10000元(裁(cai)决(jue)为终局(ju)裁(cai)决(jue))。

  案例分析

  本案的争议焦点是(shi)如何分配林某(mou)(mou)与某(mou)(mou)教育(yu)咨(zi)询公(gong)司(si)的举证责任。

  《中华人(ren)(ren)(ren)民共和国劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)争(zheng)(zheng)议调解(jie)仲裁法(fa)(fa)》第(di)六(liu)条(tiao)规定:“发生(sheng)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)争(zheng)(zheng)议,当(dang)事(shi)人(ren)(ren)(ren)对自己(ji)提出(chu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主张,有(you)(you)责任提供(gong)证(zheng)(zheng)据(ju)。与争(zheng)(zheng)议事(shi)项(xiang)有(you)(you)关的(de)(de)(de)(de)证(zheng)(zheng)据(ju)属于用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)掌握管理(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de),用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)应(ying)当(dang)提供(gong);用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)不(bu)提供(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de),应(ying)当(dang)承担不(bu)利(li)后(hou)果。”《最高人(ren)(ren)(ren)民法(fa)(fa)院关于审理(li)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)争(zheng)(zheng)议案件(jian)适(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)法(fa)(fa)律问题的(de)(de)(de)(de)解(jie)释(一)》(法(fa)(fa)释〔2020〕26号)第(di)四十二(er)条(tiao)规定:“劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者主张加(jia)班费的(de)(de)(de)(de),应(ying)当(dang)就(jiu)加(jia)班事(shi)实的(de)(de)(de)(de)存在(zai)承担举证(zheng)(zheng)责任。但劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者有(you)(you)证(zheng)(zheng)据(ju)证(zheng)(zheng)明(ming)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)掌握加(jia)班事(shi)实存在(zai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)证(zheng)(zheng)据(ju),用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)不(bu)提供(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de),由用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)承担不(bu)利(li)后(hou)果。”从上述条(tiao)款(kuan)可知,主张加(jia)班费的(de)(de)(de)(de)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者有(you)(you)责任按照“谁(shei)主张谁(shei)举证(zheng)(zheng)”的(de)(de)(de)(de)原则,就(jiu)加(jia)班事(shi)实的(de)(de)(de)(de)存在(zai)提供(gong)证(zheng)(zheng)据(ju),或者就(jiu)相关证(zheng)(zheng)据(ju)属于用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)掌握管理(li)提供(gong)证(zheng)(zheng)据(ju)。用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)应(ying)当(dang)提供(gong)而不(bu)提供(gong)有(you)(you)关证(zheng)(zheng)据(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de),可以推定劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者加(jia)班事(shi)实存在(zai)。

  本案中(zhong),虽然林某(mou)(mou)提交的(de)工(gong)资(zi)支付(fu)记录(lu)为(wei)打印件,但(dan)(dan)与实(shi)名认证(zheng)(zheng)的(de)APP打卡记录(lu)互相印证(zheng)(zheng),能(neng)够(gou)证(zheng)(zheng)明(ming)某(mou)(mou)教育咨(zi)询公司掌握加班事实(shi)存在的(de)证(zheng)(zheng)据。某(mou)(mou)教育咨(zi)询公司虽然不认可上述(shu)证(zheng)(zheng)据的(de)真实(shi)性,但(dan)(dan)未提交反证(zheng)(zheng)或(huo)者作(zuo)出合理解(jie)释,应承担不利后果。故仲裁委员(yuan)会依法裁决某(mou)(mou)教育咨(zi)询公司支付(fu)林某(mou)(mou)加班费。

  典型意义

  我国劳(lao)动(dong)法(fa)律将(jiang)保护劳(lao)动(dong)者的(de)(de)合法(fa)权(quan)益作为立法(fa)宗旨之(zhi)一,在实体和(he)程序方面都(dou)作出了相(xiang)应规定。在加班费争议处(chu)理(li)中,要(yao)充分(fen)考(kao)虑劳(lao)动(dong)者举(ju)证(zheng)能力不足(zu)的(de)(de)实际情况(kuang),根据“谁主(zhu)张(zhang)谁举(ju)证(zheng)”原(yuan)则、证(zheng)明妨碍规则,结合具体案情合理(li)分(fen)配用人单位与(yu)劳(lao)动(dong)者的(de)(de)举(ju)证(zheng)责任。

  案例7.劳动者超时加班发生工伤,用工单位、劳务派遣单位是否承担连带赔偿责任

  基本案情

  2017年(nian)8月(yue)(yue),某(mou)(mou)服(fu)务(wu)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(已依法(fa)取得(de)劳务(wu)派遣(qian)行(xing)政许可)与某(mou)(mou)传(chuan)媒(mei)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)签(qian)订(ding)劳务(wu)派遣(qian)协议(yi)(yi),约(yue)定某(mou)(mou)服(fu)务(wu)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)为(wei)(wei)某(mou)(mou)传(chuan)媒(mei)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)提供派遣(qian)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan),每天工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)11小(xiao)(xiao)时(shi)(shi),每人(ren)(ren)每月(yue)(yue)最低保(bao)底工(gong)时(shi)(shi)286小(xiao)(xiao)时(shi)(shi)。2017年(nian)9月(yue)(yue),某(mou)(mou)服(fu)务(wu)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)招用李某(mou)(mou)并(bing)派遣(qian)至某(mou)(mou)传(chuan)媒(mei)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo),未为(wei)(wei)李某(mou)(mou)缴纳工(gong)伤(shang)(shang)保(bao)险。2018年(nian)8月(yue)(yue)、9月(yue)(yue)、11月(yue)(yue),李某(mou)(mou)月(yue)(yue)工(gong)时(shi)(shi)分(fen)别为(wei)(wei)319小(xiao)(xiao)时(shi)(shi)、293小(xiao)(xiao)时(shi)(shi)、322.5小(xiao)(xiao)时(shi)(shi),每月(yue)(yue)休息日(ri)不(bu)超过(guo)3日(ri)。2018年(nian)11月(yue)(yue)30日(ri),李某(mou)(mou)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)为(wei)(wei)当日(ri)晚8时(shi)(shi)30分(fen)至12月(yue)(yue)1日(ri)上午8时(shi)(shi)30分(fen)。李某(mou)(mou)于(yu)(yu)12月(yue)(yue)1日(ri)凌晨5时(shi)(shi)30分(fen)晕(yun)倒在单位(wei)卫生间(jian),经抢救无效于(yu)(yu)当日(ri)死(si)亡(wang),死(si)亡(wang)原(yuan)因为(wei)(wei)心(xin)肌梗死(si)等(deng)。2018年(nian)12月(yue)(yue),某(mou)(mou)传(chuan)媒(mei)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)与李某(mou)(mou)近亲属惠(hui)某(mou)(mou)等(deng)签(qian)订(ding)赔偿协议(yi)(yi),约(yue)定某(mou)(mou)传(chuan)媒(mei)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)支付惠(hui)某(mou)(mou)等(deng)工(gong)亡(wang)待遇(yu)42万元(yuan),惠(hui)某(mou)(mou)等(deng)不(bu)得(de)再就李某(mou)(mou)工(gong)亡(wang)赔偿事宜或(huo)在派遣(qian)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)期(qi)间(jian)享(xiang)有的权(quan)利,向某(mou)(mou)传(chuan)媒(mei)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)提出任何形式的赔偿要求。上述协议(yi)(yi)签(qian)订(ding)后,某(mou)(mou)传(chuan)媒(mei)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)实际(ji)支付惠(hui)某(mou)(mou)等(deng)各项费用计423497.80元(yuan)。此后,李某(mou)(mou)所(suo)受伤(shang)(shang)害被社会保(bao)险行(xing)政部门认(ren)定为(wei)(wei)工(gong)伤(shang)(shang)。某(mou)(mou)服(fu)务(wu)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)、惠(hui)某(mou)(mou)等(deng)不(bu)服(fu)仲裁裁决,诉至人(ren)(ren)民法(fa)院。

  原告诉讼请求

  惠某等请(qing)求判决某服务公(gong)司(si)与某传媒公(gong)司(si)连带支付医(yi)疗费、一次性工(gong)亡补助金(jin)、丧葬补助金(jin)、供(gong)养亲属抚(fu)恤金(jin),共计1193821元。

  某(mou)服务公司请(qing)求判决不应(ying)(ying)支付(fu)(fu)供养亲属抚恤(xu)金;应(ying)(ying)支付(fu)(fu)的各项赔偿中(zhong)应(ying)(ying)扣(kou)除某(mou)传媒公司已支付(fu)(fu)款项;某(mou)传媒公司承(cheng)担连带责(ze)任(ren)。

  裁判结果

  一审(shen)(shen)法(fa)院判决:按照《工(gong)伤保险条例》,因(yin)用人单位未为(wei)李某(mou)参加工(gong)伤保险,其工(gong)亡待遇由(you)用人单位全部赔偿(chang)。某(mou)服(fu)务公(gong)(gong)司(si)和(he)某(mou)传媒(mei)(mei)公(gong)(gong)司(si)连(lian)带(dai)赔偿(chang)惠(hui)某(mou)等医疗(liao)费、一次性工(gong)亡补(bu)助金、丧葬补(bu)助金、供养(yang)亲属(shu)抚恤金合(he)计766911.55元。某(mou)传媒(mei)(mei)公(gong)(gong)司(si)不服(fu),提起上诉(su)。二审(shen)(shen)法(fa)院判决:驳回上诉(su),维持原判。

  案例分析

  本案的争议焦点是李某(mou)超时加班发(fa)生工(gong)伤,用工(gong)单位与劳务派遣单位是否应承担连带(dai)赔(pei)偿责任。

  《中华人(ren)民共和国劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)法》第(di)三(san)十八条规(gui)定:“用人(ren)单(dan)(dan)位(wei)应(ying)当保证(zheng)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)每周(zhou)至少休息一日。”第(di)四(si)十一条规(gui)定:“用人(ren)单(dan)(dan)位(wei)由(you)于生产经营需要,经与(yu)工(gong)(gong)会和劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)协(xie)商后(hou)可以延长工(gong)(gong)作时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian),一般每日不得超(chao)过(guo)一小(xiao)时(shi)(shi)(shi);因特殊(shu)原因需要延长工(gong)(gong)作时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de),在保障劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)身体健康的(de)(de)条件下(xia)延长工(gong)(gong)作时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)每日不得超(chao)过(guo)三(san)小(xiao)时(shi)(shi)(shi),但是(shi)每月(yue)不得超(chao)过(guo)三(san)十六小(xiao)时(shi)(shi)(shi)。”《中华人(ren)民共和国劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)合同法》第(di)九十二(er)条规(gui)定:“用工(gong)(gong)单(dan)(dan)位(wei)给被派(pai)遣劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)造成(cheng)损(sun)害(hai)的(de)(de),劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)务派(pai)遣单(dan)(dan)位(wei)与(yu)用工(gong)(gong)单(dan)(dan)位(wei)承担连(lian)带(dai)赔偿(chang)责任。”《国务院关于职(zhi)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)作时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)规(gui)定》(国务院令第(di)174号(hao))第(di)三(san)条规(gui)定:“职(zhi)工(gong)(gong)每日工(gong)(gong)作8小(xiao)时(shi)(shi)(shi)、每周(zhou)工(gong)(gong)作40小(xiao)时(shi)(shi)(shi)。”休息权是(shi)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)的(de)(de)基(ji)本劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)权利,即使(shi)在支付劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)加(jia)班费的(de)(de)情(qing)(qing)况(kuang)下(xia),劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)作时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)仍(reng)然受到法定延长工(gong)(gong)作时(shi)(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)上限的(de)(de)制约。劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)务派(pai)遣用工(gong)(gong)中,劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)超(chao)时(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)班发生工(gong)(gong)伤,用工(gong)(gong)单(dan)(dan)位(wei)和劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)务派(pai)遣单(dan)(dan)位(wei)对劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)的(de)(de)损(sun)失均负有责任,应(ying)承担连(lian)带(dai)赔偿(chang)责任。劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)与(yu)用工(gong)(gong)单(dan)(dan)位(wei)、劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)务派(pai)遣单(dan)(dan)位(wei)达成(cheng)赔偿(chang)协(xie)议(yi)的(de)(de),当赔偿(chang)协(xie)议(yi)存(cun)在违反法律、行(xing)政法规(gui)的(de)(de)强制性规(gui)定、欺诈、胁迫或者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)乘人(ren)之(zhi)危情(qing)(qing)形时(shi)(shi)(shi),不应(ying)认(ren)定赔偿(chang)协(xie)议(yi)有效(xiao);当赔偿(chang)协(xie)议(yi)存(cun)在重大误解或者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)显失公平情(qing)(qing)形时(shi)(shi)(shi),应(ying)当支持劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)依法行(xing)使(shi)撤销权。

  本案中,某(mou)(mou)服(fu)务公(gong)司(si)(si)和某(mou)(mou)传(chuan)媒公(gong)司(si)(si)协(xie)(xie)议约定(ding)的(de)(de)被(bei)派(pai)遣劳动者(zhe)每天工(gong)作时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)及每月工(gong)作保(bao)底(di)工(gong)时(shi)(shi),均严(yan)重(zhong)超(chao)(chao)过(guo)(guo)法(fa)定(ding)标(biao)准(zhun)。李某(mou)(mou)工(gong)亡前每月休息时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)不超(chao)(chao)过(guo)(guo)3日,每日工(gong)作时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)基本超(chao)(chao)过(guo)(guo)11小(xiao)时(shi)(shi),每月延长工(gong)作时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)超(chao)(chao)过(guo)(guo)36小(xiao)时(shi)(shi)数(shu)倍(bei),其依法(fa)享有的(de)(de)休息权受到严(yan)重(zhong)侵害。某(mou)(mou)传(chuan)媒公(gong)司(si)(si)作为(wei)用工(gong)单位长期(qi)安排(pai)李某(mou)(mou)超(chao)(chao)时(shi)(shi)加班,存(cun)在过(guo)(guo)错,对李某(mou)(mou)在工(gong)作期(qi)间(jian)(jian)突发(fa)疾(ji)病(bing)死(si)亡负(fu)有不可(ke)推卸的(de)(de)责(ze)任。惠某(mou)(mou)等主张某(mou)(mou)传(chuan)媒公(gong)司(si)(si)与(yu)某(mou)(mou)服(fu)务公(gong)司(si)(si)就(jiu)李某(mou)(mou)工(gong)伤的(de)(de)相关待遇承担(dan)连(lian)带赔偿责(ze)任,应予(yu)支(zhi)持。惠某(mou)(mou)等虽(sui)与(yu)某(mou)(mou)传(chuan)媒公(gong)司(si)(si)达成了赔偿协(xie)(xie)议,但赔偿协(xie)(xie)议是在劳动者(zhe)未经(jing)社会(hui)保(bao)险(xian)行政部(bu)(bu)门认定(ding)工(gong)伤的(de)(de)情形下签订的(de)(de),且(qie)赔偿协(xie)(xie)议约定(ding)的(de)(de)补(bu)偿数(shu)额(e)明显低于法(fa)定(ding)工(gong)伤保(bao)险(xian)待遇标(biao)准(zhun),某(mou)(mou)服(fu)务公(gong)司(si)(si)和某(mou)(mou)传(chuan)媒公(gong)司(si)(si)应对差额(e)部(bu)(bu)分予(yu)以补(bu)足(zu)。

  典型意义

  面对激(ji)烈(lie)的(de)市场竞争环境,个别用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)单位(wei)为(wei)降低(di)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)工(gong)(gong)成(cheng)本、追求利润最(zui)大化(hua),长期安排(pai)劳(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)超时(shi)(shi)加班,对劳(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)的(de)身心健康(kang)、家庭(ting)和(he)睦、参与社会生活等造成(cheng)了严重(zhong)影响,极端情况(kuang)下会威胁劳(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)的(de)生命(ming)安全。本案(an)系劳(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)超时(shi)(shi)加班发(fa)(fa)生工(gong)(gong)伤(shang)(shang)而(er)引(yin)发(fa)(fa)的(de)工(gong)(gong)伤(shang)(shang)保(bao)险待遇纠纷,是超时(shi)(shi)劳(lao)动(dong)严重(zhong)损害劳(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)健康(kang)权(quan)的(de)缩影。本案(an)裁(cai)判明确了此种情况(kuang)下用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)工(gong)(gong)单位(wei)、劳(lao)务(wu)派(pai)遣单位(wei)承担连带赔偿责(ze)任,可以有(you)效(xiao)避免劳(lao)务(wu)派(pai)遣用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)工(gong)(gong)中出现责(ze)任真空(kong)的(de)现象,实现对劳(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)合法(fa)权(quan)益的(de)充分保(bao)障。同(tong)时(shi)(shi),用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)单位(wei)应依法(fa)为(wei)职(zhi)工(gong)(gong)参加工(gong)(gong)伤(shang)(shang)保(bao)险,保(bao)障职(zhi)工(gong)(gong)的(de)工(gong)(gong)伤(shang)(shang)权(quan)益,也能分散(san)自身风(feng)险。如用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)单位(wei)未为(wei)职(zhi)工(gong)(gong)参加工(gong)(gong)伤(shang)(shang)保(bao)险,工(gong)(gong)伤(shang)(shang)职(zhi)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)伤(shang)(shang)保(bao)险待遇全部由(you)用(yong)(yong)(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)单位(wei)支付。

  案例8.用人单位以规章制度形式否认劳动者加班事实是否有效

  基本案情

  常某(mou)(mou)于2016年(nian)4月(yue)入职某(mou)(mou)网络公(gong)司(si)。入职之初,某(mou)(mou)网络公(gong)司(si)通(tong)过电子(zi)邮(you)件告知常某(mou)(mou),公(gong)司(si)采取指纹打(da)卡考勤。员(yuan)(yuan)工手册(ce)规定:“21:00之后(hou)(hou)起算(suan)加(jia)班时间;加(jia)班需由员(yuan)(yuan)工提出申(shen)请,部门负责人(ren)审(shen)批。”常某(mou)(mou)于2016年(nian)5月(yue)至(zhi)2017年(nian)1月(yue)期(qi)间,通(tong)过工作系统累(lei)计申(shen)请加(jia)班126小时。某(mou)(mou)网络公(gong)司(si)以公(gong)司(si)规章制度中明确21:00之后(hou)(hou)方起算(suan)加(jia)班时间,21:00之前的不应计入加(jia)班时间为由,拒绝支付(fu)常某(mou)(mou)加(jia)班费差额。常某(mou)(mou)向劳动(dong)人(ren)事争议仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)委员(yuan)(yuan)会(简称仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)委员(yuan)(yuan)会)申(shen)请仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai),请求裁(cai)决某(mou)(mou)网络公(gong)司(si)支付(fu)其加(jia)班费差额。某(mou)(mou)网络公(gong)司(si)不服仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)裁(cai)决,诉至(zhi)人(ren)民法院。

  原告诉讼请求

  请求判决不支付常某加班费差额。

  裁判结果

  一审法(fa)院判决:某(mou)网(wang)络公(gong)司支付常某(mou)加班(ban)费差额32000元。双(shuang)方不服,均提起上诉。二(er)审法(fa)院判决:驳(bo)回上诉,维持原判。

  案例分析

  本案的争(zheng)议焦点是某网络公司以规章制度形式(shi)否认(ren)常某加班事实是否有效。

  《中华人民(min)共和(he)国劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)合同法(fa)》第(di)四条规(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding):“用人单位(wei)应当依法(fa)建立和(he)完善劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)规(gui)(gui)章制(zhi)度(du),保障劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者享有劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)权利(li)、履(lv)行(xing)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)义务。用人单位(wei)在制(zhi)定(ding)(ding)、修改或(huo)(huo)者决定(ding)(ding)有关劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)报酬、工(gong)作时间(jian)、休息休假、劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)安全(quan)卫生、保险福利(li)、职(zhi)工(gong)培训、劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)纪律以及(ji)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)定(ding)(ding)额管理等直接(jie)涉及(ji)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者切(qie)身利(li)益的规(gui)(gui)章制(zhi)度(du)或(huo)(huo)者重大(da)事项时,应当经职(zhi)工(gong)代(dai)表大(da)会或(huo)(huo)者全(quan)体职(zhi)工(gong)讨论,提出方案和(he)意(yi)见(jian),与(yu)工(gong)会或(huo)(huo)者职(zhi)工(gong)代(dai)表平(ping)等协商(shang)确定(ding)(ding)。……用人单位(wei)应当将直接(jie)涉及(ji)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者切(qie)身利(li)益的规(gui)(gui)章制(zhi)度(du)和(he)重大(da)事项决定(ding)(ding)公示,或(huo)(huo)者告(gao)知劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者。”通(tong)过民(min)主(zhu)程(cheng)序制(zhi)定(ding)(ding)的规(gui)(gui)章制(zhi)度(du),不违反国家(jia)法(fa)律、行(xing)政(zheng)(zheng)法(fa)规(gui)(gui)及(ji)政(zheng)(zheng)策规(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding),并已向劳(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者公示的,可以作为确定(ding)(ding)双(shuang)方权利(li)义务的依据。

  本(ben)案中(zhong),一(yi)方(fang)(fang)面,某(mou)(mou)网(wang)络公(gong)司(si)的(de)(de)(de)(de)员(yuan)工(gong)手册(ce)规(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)有(you)(you)加班(ban)(ban)申请审批制度,该(gai)规(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)并不违反(fan)法(fa)律(lv)规(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding),且具有(you)(you)合(he)理性,在劳(lao)动(dong)者(zhe)明知此规(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)情(qing)况下,可以作为确定(ding)(ding)双方(fang)(fang)权利(li)义务(wu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)依据。另一(yi)方(fang)(fang)面,某(mou)(mou)网(wang)络公(gong)司(si)的(de)(de)(de)(de)员(yuan)工(gong)手册(ce)规(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)21:00之(zhi)后(hou)起(qi)算加班(ban)(ban)时(shi)间,并主(zhu)张18:00至21:00是(shi)员(yuan)工(gong)晚(wan)餐(can)和休(xiu)息时(shi)间,故自21:00起(qi)算加班(ban)(ban)。鉴于18:00至21:00时(shi)间长达3个小(xiao)时(shi),远(yuan)超过合(he)理用餐(can)时(shi)间,且在下班(ban)(ban)3个小(xiao)时(shi)后(hou)再加班(ban)(ban),不具有(you)(you)合(he)理性。在某(mou)(mou)网(wang)络公(gong)司(si)不能举证证实该(gai)段时(shi)间为员(yuan)工(gong)晚(wan)餐(can)和休(xiu)息时(shi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)情(qing)况下,其(qi)规(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)章(zhang)制度中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)该(gai)项(xiang)规(gui)(gui)(gui)(gui)定(ding)(ding)不具有(you)(you)合(he)理性,人(ren)民法(fa)院依法(fa)否定(ding)(ding)了其(qi)效力。人(ren)民法(fa)院结合(he)考(kao)勤记(ji)录(lu)、工(gong)作系统记(ji)录(lu)等(deng)证据,确定(ding)(ding)了常某(mou)(mou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)加班(ban)(ban)事实,判决某(mou)(mou)网(wang)络公(gong)司(si)支付常某(mou)(mou)加班(ban)(ban)费差额(e)。

  典型意义

  劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)争议案(an)件(jian)的(de)处理,既要保(bao)护劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)的(de)合(he)(he)法(fa)权益(yi),亦应促进(jin)(jin)企(qi)业(ye)有序发展。合(he)(he)法(fa)的(de)规(gui)(gui)章制(zhi)度(du)(du)既能规(gui)(gui)范用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)用(yong)工自主(zhu)(zhu)权的(de)行使,又能保(bao)障劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)参与用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)民主(zhu)(zhu)管理,实(shi)现构建和谐劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)关(guan)系(xi)的(de)目的(de)。不合(he)(he)理的(de)规(gui)(gui)章制(zhi)度(du)(du)则会(hui)导致用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)社会(hui)声誉(yu)差、认同感(gan)低,最终引(yin)发人(ren)(ren)(ren)才流失,不利(li)于用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)长远发展。用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)制(zhi)定的(de)合(he)(he)理合(he)(he)法(fa)的(de)规(gui)(gui)章制(zhi)度(du)(du),可以(yi)作为(wei)确定用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)、劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)权利(li)义务的(de)依据。一(yi)旦用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)以(yi)规(gui)(gui)章制(zhi)度(du)(du)形式规(gui)(gui)避应当(dang)承担(dan)的(de)用(yong)工成本(ben),侵害劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)的(de)合(he)(he)法(fa)权益(yi),仲(zhong)裁(cai)委员会(hui)、人(ren)(ren)(ren)民法(fa)院应当(dang)依法(fa)予(yu)以(yi)审查,充分保(bao)护劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)的(de)合(he)(he)法(fa)权益(yi)。用(yong)人(ren)(ren)(ren)单位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)应当(dang)根据单位(wei)(wei)(wei)(wei)实(shi)际,制(zhi)定更为(wei)人(ren)(ren)(ren)性化的(de)规(gui)(gui)章制(zhi)度(du)(du),增强劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)对规(gui)(gui)章制(zhi)度(du)(du)的(de)认同感(gan),激发劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)的(de)工作积极性,从而进(jin)(jin)一(yi)步(bu)减少劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)纠纷,为(wei)构建和谐劳(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)关(guan)系(xi)做出贡(gong)献。

  案例9.劳动者在离职文件上签字确认加班费已结清,是否有权请求支付欠付的加班费

  基本案情

  2017年(nian)7月,肖(xiao)某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)与(yu)某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)科(ke)技(ji)(ji)(ji)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(已依法取得劳务派(pai)遣(qian)行政(zheng)许可)订立劳动合同,被派(pai)遣(qian)至某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)快(kuai)递(di)(di)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)担任(ren)配送(song)员(yuan)(yuan),月工(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)为基本(ben)工(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)加提(ti)成。肖(xiao)某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)主张(zhang)某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)快(kuai)递(di)(di)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)在(zai)用工(gong)(gong)期间安排其双(shuang)休日(ri)及法定(ding)节假(jia)日(ri)加班,并(bing)提(ti)交(jiao)了工(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)表(biao)。工(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)表(biao)加盖(gai)有某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)科(ke)技(ji)(ji)(ji)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)章,某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)科(ke)技(ji)(ji)(ji)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)和(he)某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)快(kuai)递(di)(di)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)均(jun)认可其真(zhen)实性(xing)。该工(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)表(biao)显示(shi),2017年(nian)7月至2019年(nian)10月期间肖(xiao)某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)存(cun)在(zai)不(bu)同程(cheng)度(du)的(de)(de)双(shuang)休日(ri)加班及法定(ding)节假(jia)日(ri)加班,但(dan)(dan)仅获得少则46.15元、多则115.40元的(de)(de)出(chu)勤补(bu)款或(huo)节假(jia)日(ri)补(bu)助。2019年(nian)11月,肖(xiao)某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)向某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)科(ke)技(ji)(ji)(ji)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)提(ti)出(chu)离职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),当日(ri)双(shuang)方签(qian)署离职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)申(shen)请(qing)交(jiao)接(jie)表(biao)。该表(biao)“员(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)离职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)原(yuan)因”一(yi)栏(lan)显示(shi):“公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)未(wei)上社会(hui)保险,工(gong)(gong)作压力大、没(mei)给(ji)加班费(fei)。”“员(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)确认”一(yi)栏(lan)显示(shi):“经说明,我(wo)已知悉《劳动合同法》上的(de)(de)权利和(he)义务,现单位(wei)已经将我(wo)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)、加班费(fei)、经济补(bu)偿结清(qing),我(wo)与(yu)单位(wei)无其他任(ren)何争(zheng)议(yi)。本(ben)人承诺不(bu)再以任(ren)何理(li)由向某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)科(ke)技(ji)(ji)(ji)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)及用工(gong)(gong)单位(wei)主张(zhang)权利。”员(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)签(qian)名处有肖(xiao)某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)本(ben)人签(qian)名。肖(xiao)某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)对离职(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)申(shen)请(qing)交(jiao)接(jie)表(biao)的(de)(de)真(zhen)实性(xing)认可,但(dan)(dan)认为表(biao)中“员(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)确认”一(yi)栏(lan)虽系其本(ben)人签(qian)字,但(dan)(dan)并(bing)非其真(zhen)实意思(si),若不(bu)签(qian)字,某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)科(ke)技(ji)(ji)(ji)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)就不(bu)让其办理(li)工(gong)(gong)作交(jiao)接(jie),该栏(lan)内容(rong)系某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)科(ke)技(ji)(ji)(ji)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)逃避(bi)法律(lv)责任(ren)的(de)(de)一(yi)种方法。肖(xiao)某(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)(mou)不(bu)服(fu)仲(zhong)裁(cai)裁(cai)决(jue),诉(su)至人民(min)法院。

  原告诉讼请求

  请(qing)求判决某(mou)科技公(gong)司与某(mou)快递公(gong)司支付加(jia)班费82261元。

  裁判结果

  一审法(fa)院(yuan)判(pan)决:驳回肖(xiao)某(mou)加班(ban)费的(de)诉讼请求。肖(xiao)某(mou)不服,提(ti)起上(shang)诉。二审法(fa)院(yuan)改判(pan):某(mou)科技公司(si)与(yu)某(mou)快(kuai)递公司(si)连带支付肖(xiao)某(mou)加班(ban)费24404.89元。

  案例分析

  本(ben)案的争议焦(jiao)点是肖某是否与用人(ren)单位就支付加班费达成合法有(you)效的协议。

  《最(zui)高人(ren)(ren)民法(fa)(fa)院(yuan)关于(yu)审(shen)理(li)劳(lao)动争议(yi)案件适用(yong)(yong)法(fa)(fa)律问题的(de)(de)(de)解(jie)释(shi)(一)》(法(fa)(fa)释(shi)〔2020〕26号)第三十五条(tiao)规定(ding):“劳(lao)动者(zhe)(zhe)与用(yong)(yong)人(ren)(ren)单位(wei)就解(jie)除(chu)(chu)或者(zhe)(zhe)终止劳(lao)动合同办理(li)相关手(shou)续、支付工资报酬、加班费、经(jing)济(ji)补(bu)偿(chang)或者(zhe)(zhe)赔偿(chang)金(jin)等(deng)达成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)协(xie)议(yi),不违反法(fa)(fa)律、行政法(fa)(fa)规的(de)(de)(de)强制性规定(ding),且(qie)不存在(zai)欺(qi)诈、胁迫(po)或者(zhe)(zhe)乘人(ren)(ren)之危(wei)情形的(de)(de)(de),应当(dang)认定(ding)有(you)效(xiao)。”司(si)法(fa)(fa)实(shi)践中,既应尊(zun)重和保(bao)障(zhang)双(shuang)方基于(yu)真(zhen)实(shi)自愿合法(fa)(fa)原则签(qian)订的(de)(de)(de)终止或解(jie)除(chu)(chu)劳(lao)动合同的(de)(de)(de)协(xie)议(yi),也应对劳(lao)动者(zhe)(zhe)明(ming)确(que)持有(you)异议(yi)的(de)(de)(de)、涉及劳(lao)动者(zhe)(zhe)基本权益(yi)保(bao)护(hu)的(de)(de)(de)协(xie)议(yi)真(zhen)实(shi)性予以审(shen)查,依法(fa)(fa)保(bao)护(hu)劳(lao)动者(zhe)(zhe)的(de)(de)(de)合法(fa)(fa)权益(yi)。

  本(ben)(ben)案(an)中(zhong),肖(xiao)某认(ren)(ren)(ren)为离(li)职(zhi)申请(qing)交(jiao)接表(biao)“员工(gong)确(que)(que)认(ren)(ren)(ren)”一(yi)栏不(bu)(bu)是其真实意(yi)思表(biao)示,上面记载的(de)(de)(de)内容也与(yu)(yu)事(shi)实不(bu)(bu)符。该表(biao)中(zhong)“员工(gong)离(li)职(zhi)原(yuan)因”与(yu)(yu)“员工(gong)确(que)(que)认(ren)(ren)(ren)”两处表(biao)述确(que)(que)实存(cun)在(zai)矛盾。两家(jia)公(gong)司均未提供与(yu)(yu)肖(xiao)某就加班(ban)费(fei)(fei)等款(kuan)项达成的(de)(de)(de)协(xie)议(yi)及已(yi)向肖(xiao)某支付上述款(kuan)项的(de)(de)(de)证据(ju),且(qie)肖(xiao)某否认(ren)(ren)(ren)双方就上述款(kuan)项已(yi)达成一(yi)致并已(yi)给付。因此(ci),离(li)职(zhi)申请(qing)交(jiao)接表(biao)中(zhong)员工(gong)确(que)(que)认(ren)(ren)(ren)的(de)(de)(de)“现单(dan)位已(yi)将(jiang)我的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)资(zi)、加班(ban)费(fei)(fei)、经(jing)济补偿(chang)结(jie)清,我与(yu)(yu)单(dan)位无其他任何(he)争议(yi)”与(yu)(yu)事(shi)实不(bu)(bu)符,不(bu)(bu)能认(ren)(ren)(ren)定为肖(xiao)某的(de)(de)(de)真实意(yi)思表(biao)示。本(ben)(ben)案(an)情形并不(bu)(bu)符合《最高人(ren)民(min)法院关(guan)于审(shen)理劳动争议(yi)案(an)件适用法律(lv)问题的(de)(de)(de)解释(一(yi))》第三十五条之(zhi)规定,故二审(shen)法院依法支持肖(xiao)某关(guan)于加班(ban)费(fei)(fei)的(de)(de)(de)诉讼请(qing)求。

  典型意义

  实践中(zhong),有(you)的(de)用(yong)人单(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)在终(zhong)止或(huo)解除(chu)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)合(he)同时(shi),会与劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)就加(jia)(jia)班费、经(jing)(jing)济补偿(chang)或(huo)赔偿(chang)金等(deng)(deng)达成(cheng)协(xie)(xie)(xie)议(yi)(yi)。部(bu)分用(yong)人单(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)利(li)用(yong)其(qi)在后(hou)续工(gong)资发放(fang)、离职证明开具、档案(an)和社会保险(xian)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)系转移等(deng)(deng)方面的(de)优势地位(wei),借机(ji)变相(xiang)迫使劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)在用(yong)人单(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)提供(gong)的(de)格式文本上签字,放(fang)弃包(bao)括(kuo)加(jia)(jia)班费在内的(de)权(quan)利(li),或(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)在未足额支(zhi)付(fu)加(jia)(jia)班费的(de)情况下让劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)签字确认加(jia)(jia)班费已经(jing)(jing)付(fu)清(qing)的(de)事(shi)(shi)实。劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)往(wang)往(wang)事(shi)(shi)后(hou)反悔,提起劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)争(zheng)议(yi)(yi)仲裁与诉讼。本案(an)中(zhong),人民法(fa)(fa)院(yuan)最终(zhong)依法(fa)(fa)支(zhi)持劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)于(yu)加(jia)(jia)班费的(de)诉讼请求(qiu),既维护(hu)了劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)合(he)法(fa)(fa)权(quan)益(yi),对(dui)用(yong)人单(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)日(ri)后(hou)诚信协(xie)(xie)(xie)商、依法(fa)(fa)保护(hu)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)报酬权(quan)亦(yi)有(you)良(liang)好引(yin)导作用(yong),有(you)助(zhu)于(yu)构建和谐稳定的(de)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)系。劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)者(zhe)(zhe)在签署相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)协(xie)(xie)(xie)议(yi)(yi)时(shi),亦(yi)应熟悉相(xiang)关(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)条款含义,审慎签订协(xie)(xie)(xie)议(yi)(yi),通过合(he)法(fa)(fa)途(tu)径维护(hu)自身权(quan)益(yi)。

  案例10.加班费的仲裁时效应当如何认定

  基本案情

  张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)(mou)于2016年7月(yue)入职某(mou)(mou)建筑公司从事(shi)(shi)施工(gong)管理工(gong)作,2019年2月(yue)离职。工(gong)作期间,张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)(mou)存(cun)在加班(ban)情形,但某(mou)(mou)建筑公司未支(zhi)付其加班(ban)费。2019年12月(yue),张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)(mou)向劳动人事(shi)(shi)争议仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)委(wei)员会申(shen)请仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai),请求(qiu)裁(cai)决(jue)某(mou)(mou)建筑公司依法(fa)支(zhi)付其加班(ban)费,某(mou)(mou)建筑公司以张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)(mou)的请求(qiu)超过仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)时效为由抗辩。张(zhang)(zhang)某(mou)(mou)不服仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)裁(cai)决(jue),诉至人民法(fa)院(yuan)。

  原告诉讼请求

  请(qing)求判决(jue)某建(jian)筑公司(si)支(zhi)付加班费46293元(yuan)。

  裁判结果

  一审(shen)法院判(pan)决:某(mou)(mou)建(jian)筑公司(si)支付张(zhang)某(mou)(mou)加班费(fei)18120元。张(zhang)某(mou)(mou)与某(mou)(mou)建(jian)筑公司(si)均未提起上诉(su),一审(shen)判(pan)决已(yi)生效。

  案例分析

  本(ben)案争议焦点是(shi)张某关于加班费(fei)的请(qing)求是(shi)否超过仲裁时效。

  《中(zhong)华人民共(gong)和国(guo)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)争(zheng)议(yi)调解(jie)仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)法(fa)》第(di)二十(shi)七条规(gui)定(ding):“劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)争(zheng)议(yi)申请(qing)仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)的(de)时(shi)效(xiao)期(qi)间(jian)(jian)为(wei)一年(nian)(nian)。仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)时(shi)效(xiao)期(qi)间(jian)(jian)从当(dang)事人知道(dao)或者(zhe)应当(dang)知道(dao)其权(quan)利被(bei)侵害(hai)之(zhi)(zhi)日起计算。……劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)关(guan)(guan)系(xi)存续(xu)期(qi)间(jian)(jian)因(yin)拖(tuo)(tuo)欠(qian)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)报酬(chou)发(fa)生争(zheng)议(yi)的(de),劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)申请(qing)仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)不受本条第(di)一款规(gui)定(ding)的(de)仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)时(shi)效(xiao)期(qi)间(jian)(jian)的(de)限制(zhi);但是(shi),劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)关(guan)(guan)系(xi)终止的(de),应当(dang)自(zi)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)关(guan)(guan)系(xi)终止之(zhi)(zhi)日起一年(nian)(nian)内(nei)提出。”《中(zhong)华人民共(gong)和国(guo)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)法(fa)》第(di)四(si)十(shi)四(si)条规(gui)定(ding):“有下(xia)列情形之(zhi)(zhi)一的(de),用(yong)(yong)人单位应当(dang)按照下(xia)列标准(zhun)支付高于(yu)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)者(zhe)正常工(gong)作(zuo)时(shi)间(jian)(jian)工(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)工(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)报酬(chou)……”。《关(guan)(guan)于(yu)工(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)总额组(zu)成的(de)规(gui)定(ding)》(国(guo)家统(tong)计局令第(di)1号)第(di)四(si)条规(gui)定(ding):“工(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)总额由下(xia)列六个部(bu)分(fen)组(zu)成:……(五)加(jia)(jia)班(ban)加(jia)(jia)点工(gong)资(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)”。仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)时(shi)效(xiao)分(fen)为(wei)普通仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)时(shi)效(xiao)和特别仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)时(shi)效(xiao),在劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)关(guan)(guan)系(xi)存续(xu)期(qi)间(jian)(jian)因(yin)拖(tuo)(tuo)欠(qian)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)报酬(chou)发(fa)生劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)争(zheng)议(yi)的(de),应当(dang)适用(yong)(yong)特别仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)时(shi)效(xiao),即(ji)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)关(guan)(guan)系(xi)存续(xu)期(qi)间(jian)(jian)的(de)拖(tuo)(tuo)欠(qian)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)报酬(chou)仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)时(shi)效(xiao)不受“知道(dao)或者(zhe)应当(dang)知道(dao)权(quan)利被(bei)侵害(hai)之(zhi)(zhi)日起一年(nian)(nian)”的(de)限制(zhi),但是(shi)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)关(guan)(guan)系(xi)终止的(de),应当(dang)自(zi)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)关(guan)(guan)系(xi)终止之(zhi)(zhi)日起一年(nian)(nian)内(nei)提出。加(jia)(jia)班(ban)费属于(yu)劳(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)(lao)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)报酬(chou),相关(guan)(guan)争(zheng)议(yi)处理(li)中(zhong)应当(dang)适用(yong)(yong)特别仲(zhong)(zhong)裁(cai)(cai)(cai)(cai)时(shi)效(xiao)。

  本(ben)案中,某(mou)(mou)建筑公(gong)司主张张某(mou)(mou)加(jia)(jia)班(ban)费(fei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)请(qing)求已(yi)经超(chao)过了一年的(de)(de)(de)(de)仲裁时效,不(bu)应予以支(zhi)持。人(ren)(ren)民法院(yuan)认为,张某(mou)(mou)与(yu)某(mou)(mou)建筑公(gong)司的(de)(de)(de)(de)劳动合(he)(he)同于2019年2月解除,其(qi)支(zhi)付(fu)加(jia)(jia)班(ban)费(fei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)请(qing)求应自劳动合(he)(he)同解除之(zhi)日起一年内提出,张某(mou)(mou)于2019年12月提出仲裁申请(qing),其(qi)请(qing)求并未超(chao)过仲裁时效。根据劳动保障监(jian)察(cha)机构在执法中调取(qu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工资表上的(de)(de)(de)(de)考勤记录,人(ren)(ren)民法院(yuan)认定张某(mou)(mou)存在加(jia)(jia)班(ban)的(de)(de)(de)(de)事(shi)实,判决某(mou)(mou)建筑公(gong)司支(zhi)付(fu)张某(mou)(mou)加(jia)(jia)班(ban)费(fei)。

  典型意义

  时效是指权(quan)(quan)利(li)人(ren)不行使权(quan)(quan)利(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)事实状态持续(xu)经(jing)过法定期间,其(qi)权(quan)(quan)利(li)即发生(sheng)效力减(jian)损的(de)(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)度(du)。作为权(quan)(quan)利(li)行使尤其(qi)是救济(ji)权(quan)(quan)行使期间的(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)种,时效既与(yu)当事人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)实体权(quan)(quan)利(li)密切(qie)相(xiang)关,又与(yu)当事人(ren)通(tong)过相(xiang)应的(de)(de)(de)(de)程序救济(ji)其(qi)权(quan)(quan)益(yi)密不可分。获取劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)报酬(chou)权(quan)(quan)是劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)权(quan)(quan)益(yi)中最基本、最重要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)权(quan)(quan)益(yi),考虑(lv)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者在(zai)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)关系存续(xu)期间的(de)(de)(de)(de)弱势(shi)地位,法律(lv)对于拖欠劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)报酬(chou)争议设置(zhi)了特别(bie)仲裁时效,对于有(you)效保(bao)护(hu)劳(lao)(lao)动(dong)者权(quan)(quan)益(yi)具(ju)有(you)重要(yao)意义。

  (大发体育APP)

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